Child abuse and disobedience is on inevitable phase in the growth. Defiant disobedience disorder is the most common mental disorder occurring in 2-16 % of the children of pre-elementary or in the beginning of school age, in the phases before teenage. This is a type of behavioral disorder in the childhood in which the chid shows retarding or incompatible or hostile behavior against authority sources. This type of disorder is a behavioral and continuous disobedience, aggression and challenging (stimulating) behavior toward parents, teachers and other authorities that is beyond the normal behavior in child’s mental growth. The sufferes may seem so angry and bastard. The paresent study aimed in studying the effectiveness of behavioral theapy on the decrease of defiant disobedience disorder symptoms. The research is the kind of pre-exam and post-exam by a control group.
The statistical society of the research is the whole students stuffering from oppositional defiant disorder in an state school in behshahr based on accidental manner, 12 students were selected as samples. The tools of data collecting in the study is the questionnaire ODD, the reliability of oppositional defiant disorder was studied through Cronbach’s alpha and was measured by 0/75. The research data analysis was given through deseriptive statistics using the SPSS software. The finding results of the study shows that in the pre-test phase, the mean and standard deviation of the objection and disobediebce disorder symptoms are 5/83 and 1/83, respectively, and the control group as 7 and 1/26 and in the post-test phase,the mean and the standard deviation of testing group were 3/33 and 2/42 and 6/33 and 1/03 in control group, respectively. The total aim of the study is collecting the data about studying the effectiveness ofbehavioral cognitive therapy on the decrease of symptoms from defiant disobedience disorder.
Keywords: Child, Oppositional defiant disorder, Children’s behavioral therapy techniques.
Childhood is one of the most important phases of life, in which the personality of the person is formed. Most of incompatibilities and behavioral disorders in youth and adolescence, rises from lack of proper guidance in the process of growth and evolution. Based on the acceptance of this fact, nowadays, an increasing attention is paid to prevention and treatment of childhood disorders and problem.The children’s behavioral disorders are common and disabling disordrs producing lots of problems for the kinds themselves, teachers and families, bringing about many social issues. The researchers found out that behavioral disorders are usally appeared first in the early ages of elementary period (yousefi,1394).
Behavioral disorders influence on the performance of educational-social in the children significantly in a negative manner and they increase the disorders in the youth and childhood is the disobedience defiant disorder, additional to conduct & attention deficit disorder of hyperactiveness, being one of the most important reasons of referring to mantal health clinics. This disorder is diffinguised up to the early youth by the repeated and negative behavior of hostiliry and plunder, against authority, and they should be continued for 6 months, at least (Ismaeil,1393).
Disobedience and pertinacity of children is an inevitable phase in the process of growth and is so common in the beginning ages thet the parents have to bear it in the growth period of their children but it doesn’t mean that nothing can be done. If a correct action is done in the case of firdt plunder symptoms, fewer cases of disorder are appeared in future. The stiging kids are usually bad-tempered without expressing the reason, The bad temper takes 3 minutes in average. The behave in screaming and yelling, kicking the ground and trampling up toward parents. The behaviors don’t last at about 18 months, And last about 3 minutes. But as the kid grows up, such behaviors are shown up in more times with more time affecting parents severly (Amini,1393).
Defending the personal desires and the ability to cope with other’s desires is basically important for a normal growth, and is so effective in indentification, autonomy, internal control and criteria setting. The most apparent conflicting behavior appears in the ages of 18 to 24 months old. Such a situation takes a payhological aspect when getting somehow abnormal in case of continuity or severity, and its affluence getting more significant, to be clearer; incompatibility of growth and age situation of the kid (kashani,1381).
When the behaviors are repeated more and more and got more severe, they change into a type of disorder named conflict disobedience (Lotfi, 1390).
Oppositional defiant disorder is a common cause of children referring to psychological & consultance clinics (Barekli,2010).
In order to identify children suffering from this disorder exactly, Some evaluations should be done singly, and an interview should be performed with kid’s parents and teacher. During interview with between kid and parents and parents characteristics are studied (Mohamadi,1390).
Oppositional defiant disorder is the most parevalent mental disorder, its prevalence of 2 to 16 % appears in kinds of pre-elementary or early at school age and before the youth.
Based on the text of revision of the fourth diagnosis and ststistics of mental disorders, oppositional defiant disorder is a stability pattern of negative work, plunder, disobedience, hostility and rebellion against authority. The disorder is displayed through anger, controversy with adults, active defying of the rules and adults desires and lack of cooperation with them, intention in upsetting others, blaming annoyance, madness, and also revenge and malice (rezaei, 1389).
Prevalence of such a disorder is observed in both gender groups of girls and boys, but such behavioral problems are mostly observed in boys than the girls, the reason lyingin natural differences between tow genders (Deklyen, splts and, Greenberg, 1999, Barlow and stewart-Brown,2000). Problems and issues of a like can affect the evolutionary pathways by making an obstacle in learning appropriate skills with the age and can place the kids in danger of futther problems (Paston Miler, 2014).
The mentioned problems couse a lack in self-cinfidence, low tolerance for failure, depressed manner and bad temper attacks. These are symptoms of undesired disorders in advance and the kids suffering are in danger of other problems like conuct disorder, temper disorders, hyper tension, drug abuse and alcoholism (Marmorestin, 2006) and also , Antisocial personality disorder and delinquent behaviors during puberty and adolescence (Richard and Jogin, 2002).
This disorder is a gradual and chronic disorder almost always interfering interpersonal relation with educational performance of kid. Despite adequate intelligence, they don’t show any progressat school because of disaffiliation and lack of ressistance against external expectation and persistence on solving the problems in helping others (lahi et.al, 1992).
The factors having a role in making behavioral problems and disorders, interaction of social and environmental features and personality feateres of kid. Due to number and variety of problems in kids in different fields, different therapeutic approaches are presented (Cassidine, 1997).
Oppositional defiant disorder is a chronic and gradual one almost always interfering interpersonal relations with kid’s educational performance. These kids often lack friends and humane relations do not look satisfactory to them. Despite adequate intelligence, and due to lack of cooperation and resistance against external expectations and persistence on solving problems in helping others, they do not show any progress at school, and they may fail there. The before-mwntioned problems couses a decrease in self-confidence, low tolerance in failure, depressed manner, and bad temper attacks (sadok, 1389).
In some cases, plunder-disobedience disorder turn into conuct disorder.
In fact, the kids suffering from conduct disorder have a background in plunder and disobedience. However, All the children suffering from these disorders do not go forward more seriouse disordering behaviors that are along with condnct disorder. Development and identification of rhese kids in advance depend on many variants including the severity of transferring, the stability through time, the probability of another disorder at the same time (dual diagnosis like conduct disorder, learning, temper, and drug abuse disorder) and amount of family lealth. Due to the fact that, behavioral disorders influence all personal and social aspects of children’s life, any effort in regard with identification and diagnosis, consistency, control and treatment which improve society’s mental health are deemed valuable (Rajabi, 1394).
Aim of research:
The study of effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on the decrease in oppositional defiant disorder symptoms is effective.
The research hypothesis :
The cognitive behavioral therapy affects on the decrease of oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.
The research variants:
Independent variants= cognitive behavioral therapy
Dependent variants= oppositional defiant disorder.
Method of research:
4-1) statistical society:
The statistical society of research includes the whole students in the second grade of elementary, involved in learning during educational year 93-94.
4-2) statistical sample:
The research sample is a total of 12 people, 6 of which are in control group and the 6 other are in testing group.
4-3) sampling method:
For the present stydy, due to statistical society, sampling was done in the form of random cluster.
5-1) Self-reporting scale for adolescent behavioral problems:
5-1-1) questionnaire description:
In the present study, the questionnaire was used to evaluate adolescent behavioral problems made by Ashenbach (1991).
This scale is to answer for the age range of 11 to 18 years old, with the educational status of at least fifth grade in Primary school in 15 minutes (Habibi Asgarabad et.al, 1388). The scale includes syndroms and Merits. The phase syndronos hold 112 points includings depression/ isolation, physical complaints, depression/ tension, social problems, thought problems, attention problem, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior and also it is the scale for other behavioral problems forming heterogeneous sets of different annoyance like behavior in the form of other sex, disobedience, not eating fear form school, chewing nail, night mare, abesity, misery and so on.
The questions of this scale include 3 choices, totally, usually and at all, receiving the marks 0 , 1 and 2, respectively. For the mentioned scale, 3 types of marks are available, including:
Raw scores, percentage rating, and T scoring. The adolescent’s performance is indicated on a half of crack, to make the kid’s merit and problems diagnosis easier. The score of each individual in this subscale can vary from 0 to 10. The higher score and 4 is the indicator of disorder in the individual.
5-1-3) Reliability and accuracy:
The accuracy of the questionnaire is studied so many times. The correlation coefficient of the scale YSR was attained through the adolescent personality questionnaire of Eisenck between 0/39 to 0/68(Habibi Asgarbad et.al, 1388) and the Parental questionnaire of child’s sickness indication CSI-4 was 0/15 to 0/24. Moreover, the reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was reached through alpha Cronbach for the general problems as 0/85 (Minaei, 1384).
Tension vegarding mental health of children and its effect on child’s growth and performance, simeltaneons with the increase in the amount of mental disorder prevalence that can be identified, have been increased significantly recently. On this basis, the experts emphasize on the importance of evaluation and intime treatmen of psychological disorders. Since the behavioral and emotional patterns in adolescence change into more severe ones, identification of child’s mental health problems as soon as possible is one of prevention matters in public heakth (Tigress,2010). One of the most common mental health disobedience disorder is one of disorders during childhood and adolescence in which the child shows plunder or incompatible and adolescence in which the child shows plunder or incompatible and hostile behavior toward authority and power. The children suffering from oppositional defiant disorder are negative, hostile, eratic and disobedient toward authority during a course of at least 6 months. This disorder would cause a number of problems at home, at school and in relationship with those at the same age and affect the individuals and society negatively inn the case of job and personality. To treat, different treatmen ways can be used. One of them is the behavioral approach involving parents and children teaching and it forms an important part of treatment. The most successful action that can be done after plunder and bad temper is to hug the child with love and affection. The existing evidence in the researches show that when one embraces the child after plunder, the behavior would not be repeated that much and the duration would decrease. Embracing causes the child know that although no attention is paid while screaming and yelling, he/she is still loved and understood. The childhood is one of the most important phases in life, in which child’s personality is formed and established. Most of incompatibilities and behavioral disorders in adolescenece and youth rises from neglectin to problems and behavioral emotiona, issues during childhood and lack of correct direction during growth and evolution. Based on accepting this fact, Recently, an increasing attention is paid to prevention and treatment of childhood disorders and problems. The childhood behavioral disorders are lommon and disabling disorders cousing many problems for the teachers, family and the children themselves, that are along with many social issues. The researchers found that behavioral disorders are usually observed first during the early years of elementary school (Yousefi,1377). The behavioral disorders influence on child’s educational-social Performance negatively, and significantly. And would increase the probability of mental disease during adolescence. (Foruoddin, 1372). It was supposed so far that the kids have the same problem as the adolescents but during recent years, increasingly, the kid’s psychological problems are focused, too. In fact, indentification of cases with clinical problems and studying the type, severity and distribution of mental health problems and disorders can be used to evaluate the range of psychological chaos prevalences, identifying the present process and evolution of etiology hypothesis (Kanuoo,1995). The prevalence of behavioral disorders during childhood was estimated from 6 to 19 %. Examples of behavioral disorders are attention deficit and inactivity, conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. The prevalence of these disorders among students are those problems affecting the familiea, schools and the society. The disorders not only involves the children and the family at the time, but also brings about an unsatisfactory future for children and their family. One of the disorders during childhood and youth is oppositional defiant disorder that is one of the important reasons of referring mental health clinics in addition to coduct and hyperactivity of lack of attention. This disorder is observed maximumly unit the early years of the youth by repeated and negative, plunder and hostility behavior against authority and it should go on until at least 6 months (Esmaeili, 1380). Based on the revised definition in the fourth diagnosis and statistical guidance for mental disorder, oppositional defiant disorder is a negative and stable pattern, disobedience, plunder, hostility and rebellion against authority and power. The children suffering from this disorder usually discuss with the adolescents, get angry and look irritable. They disobey the adolescents actively and frequently and they often annoy others, and blame others for their own mistakes. The symptoms of such disorders are indicated during interaction with the adolescents and others at the same age, who are well familiar with the disordered child. This disorder usually appears at 8 to 12 years old, and it’s more prevalent in boys than the girls (kaplann, 1389). These kids are usually improved slowly and show weak interactin and usually
Lack cognitive, social and emotional skills needed for doing adult’s requests (Haman, 1389). Almost always interfering with interpersonal relations and kid’s educational performance. These children often lack friends and the relations do not sound satisfactory for them. They don’t improve at school despite the adequate intelligence, due to not cooperating and resisting an external expectation and insisting on solving other’s problems, and They may fail at school. The mentioned problems couse a decrease in self-confidence, low tolerance for failure, depressed temper and bad-temper attacks(kaplann, 1389). In same cases of disobedience-plunder disorder, they turn into conduct disorder. In fact, most kids suffering from conduct disorder have a background of suffering from disobedience and plunder. Howevwr, all the kids suffering from plunder-disobedience disorder don’t move toward more serious disordering behaviors along with conduct disorder. Evolution and awareness of kids who are suffering from such disorder depend on many variants like transmission severity, stability during the time, the probability of other disorders (dual diagnosis like conduct disorder, learning, temper and drug abuse disorders) and family’s health. Since the temper disorders affect all aspects of personal and social life, any effort regarding indentification and diagnosis, control, treatment, and consistency, that improve society’s mental health seems valuable. During long years, various treatment approaches have been used for cognitive behavioral and emotional problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder. In this regard, some healings focused on individual interferences and the others on family interferences, so that parents-teaching plans were to help parents manage the child’s behavior, individual psyohotherapy were to manage anger, family therapy to improve relation, teaching social skills to increase their flexibility and to tolerate the failure among others at the same age and behavioral cognitive therapy were to teach how to solve the problems and to decrease negativism (child and Adolescent psychiatry Academy in America, 2007). Behaviourists believe that revenge is an improved and taught behavior by which the child controls the powerful parents. For instance, the child makes the parents to give back their request that seems unsatisfactory to the child , through a bad temper attack. Moreover, parents much attention like long stugglings about behavior could also develop the behavior (Lotfi kashani, 1378). Plunder and disobedience disorder contains negativism, defending, aggressive and disobedience behavior manners toward the powered people, those behaviors that take at least 6 months and destructs the child or adolescent’s educational, social and job performance. Such negativism behaviors seem natural in particular phases of growth, that is at the age of two or somehow the adolescence, and they indicate the child’s effort to reach independence and identity. But if the severity is much more than exoectation and brings about unsatisfaction of elders and child’s performance destruction, it is supposed to be a kind of disorder. The amount of oppositional defiant disorder prevalence is estimated to be 2 – 16% . The conflict disobedience and plunder in kids are an inevitable phase in child’s growth , and they are so prevalent in the newbie process that the parents have to tolerate it during the child’s growth but it doesn’t mean that it is observed less. Bastard children are usually bad-tempered without even giving reasons. Although it taked about 3 minutes in average. They show some behaviors like yelling and screaming, hitting the ground and trampling up exactly in sight of parents. Such behaviors don’t last much at the age of 18 month and they take about 3 minuts. But as child gets older, such behaviors become more frequent and longer, so that the parents would be really affected (Amini, 1383).
Defending the personal desires and the ability to appose the other’s desires are basically so important for the child’s natural growth and they seem so effective in autonomy, identification and setting the benchmarks and internal controlling. The most aooarent opposing (conflicting) behaviors are observed at 18- 24 months old. Such situation would have a pathological aspect when it becomes abnormal regarding during or severity, and its frequency becomes more significant, in a more clear word, when it is not the same with growth and age situation of kid (kashani, 1381).
The psychologists defined the disobedience as an instrumental anger. The anger that the kid uses as an ininstrument to impact the parents (kolark, 1388). Sometimes, these behaviors start in the home and that’s why they are related to parents. Some other times, the behaviors start out of home and appear in the type of pessimism and malice toward familiar adults or classmates. For instance, the children always blame others and assume their own behavior depended on irrational situations ( vaziri, 1381). When the behaviors are frequently repeated and become more serious, they change into a type of disorder called oppositional defiant disorder. It usually appears at 8 to 12 years old and it is more prevalent in boys than gils (kapaan, 2005). In addition, conduct disorder contains a wide range of antisocial behaviors like aggressive actionss, robbery, sabotage, deliberate fire, lying, rambling and escape, Although such behaviors are different, common characteristics is trampling the rules and social securities. Most of behaviors are often reflected in actions against environment of the people and their property. Antisocial behaviors somehow appear in natural evolution of growth. Dispute, lying, robbery, property destruction and disobedience, are pretty prevalent in different phases of childhood.
Based on Mental health association (1995) the oppositional defiant disorder is indicated through anger, indifference, irritability, and opposing behavior inappropriate with the age that is usually clear before the age of 8 and at most early adolescence by repeated behavior of negativism, aggression and plunder against the power (Alipour, 1384). According to the psychiatric society view in America, negativism and plunder aooear as continuose homeage , resistance against the rules, unwillingness to interview, dominace with arguments with adukts and the same ages (Nikkhou, 1386).
Etiology research also announced the reason of such orders to be a combination of features and genetic trands or kids biological trends, inefficient parenting methods and environmental situations. Different researches suggested that the children with the symptoms of such orders often lack cognitive, social, and emotional skills needed for meeting the adults requests (Ohan and Johnson, 2005, Hommerson, Muray, Ohan and Johnson, 2006, Sculous and Trown, 2007). They usually don’t show a good performance (Bret, Krager, … , 2001), would be weak in interpersonal relations (Gerrn, 2006), and have attention and deficit in social actions (Nolan, 2007). Such problems may cause self-confidence come down, they bring low tolerance for failure, depressed temper and anger attacks. Moreover, in kids suffering from such disorders, the tempering judgement may damage (Tiges, 2010). Prognosis of this disorder is not desireable and the kids who are suffering are in high danger adolescence crimes, antisocial behavior, drug abuse and dropout (quoted by Mandeel, 2005) and disorders like conduct, anti social, temper and stress. Psychological society in America (1994).
Has estimate the prevalence of conflict indifference about 6 to 12 percent. In the studies, the prevalence of these two orders are so different according to the type of examinayion and type of studied variants (Mass, 2010).
Since behavioral disorders affect all life aspect of child’s individual and social, any effort to identify and distinguish, consistency, controlling and treatment aiming to improve mental health of society is valuable. During long years, various healing methods were used to face with cognitive behavioral & emotional problems in children suffering from disobedience disorder. In this regard, some treatments are focused on the individual interferences and some others on family interferences, so that parents educational plans were to help management of kid’s behaviours, individual psychotherapy to manage anger, family therapy to improve the relation, social skills teaching to increase flexibility and tolerance of failure among the children of the same age and cognitive behavioral treatment to teach how to solve problems decreace negativeism. Behavioral- cognitive treatments are the effective ways to treat conflict indifference disorder. Cognitive- behavioral therapy can help the disordered kids to improve the temper and control the anger. Such therapy causes an increase in kids awareness from thoughth patterns which are incentives and directors of behavior, and teaches ways to confront with the thought (Ferborn, 2007). The cognitive- behavioral therapy can be combined in a therapeutic game for kids.
Some of the most prevalent symptoms of bastard and revenge disorder are as follows: Frequent angriness, disputes with elders, disobedience, incompatibility with rules or elders requests, intentional disturbance to others, blaming others for their own mistakes, scandal and curse and annoyance. These children are usually isolated due to disaffiliation, resistance to external expectations and insisting on solving problems without any help from others. These kids with plunder and opposing disorders don’t often get involved with physical violence or any significant destructive behavior, but bad temper of child, rejecting to cooperate with others and disturbing behaviors are higher than expectations in individuals of the same age. These kids are often alone without any friends and humane relations are not satisfactory to them. The secondary issues that children or adolescents of such disorder may face with are as follows: low self-confidence, low tolerance for failure, and depressed temper. In the adolescents suffering from this disorder, they are sometimes moved toward alcoholism and psychotropic substances abuse, too. The opposing behaviors are usually against those mature people who are familiar with child or adolescent, people like parents and in some cases, also teachers and school people. The behaviors may simply be observed toward parents and in some cases, the children & adolescents behaviors are totally reasonable; therefore, they may show little symptoms while being examined clinically or they may show no symptom at all.
6-2) oppositional defiant disorder
oppositional defiant disorder is one of the most frequent psychological disorders in children oppearing to be 2 to 16 % common in pre-elemntry kids or early at school age. This disorder are indicated by: getting angry, arguing with adults, intention in annoying others, blaming others for their own mistakes and misbehaviors, active disobedience regarding rules and elders requests or disaffiliation with them, annoyance, early annoyance from others, upsetting, revenge, and malice (sadook, 1380, translated by rezaei). This is a gradual and chronic disorder always interferring in interpersonal relations and childs educational performance, in which the child often has no friend and relations do not look satisfactory to them.
Despite the adequate intelligence, they don’t show any progress at school due to disaffiliation and resistance against external expectations and insisting on solving the problems without any help from others, The mentioned problems cause a decrease in the self-confidence, low tolerance for failure, depressed temper and bad temper attacks (sadook, 1389).
The children suffering from this disorder may suffer from conduct, hyper-activite- lack of attention, learning, hyper tension and drug abuse disorders in future (sadook, 1389, translated by rezaei). About Etiology of oppositional defiant disorder, many factors are mentioned the most important being family factors (koushan, 1382).
The family is the first and the most lasting factor known as constructor and foundation for further behavior or personality of child and even according to some psychologists, one must seek the root for many personality disorders and mental disease in the primary growth in family (Rezaei, 1390).
Different studies indicate that parents mental problems, especially mothers is effective in the childs oppositional defiant disorder and growth. In such cases, interfernces done for family health development can do be effective in disorder decrease. The researchers try to increase the following factors in families:
Knowledge, skill, self-confidence, self-efficacy and self- confidence in kids education, entertainment development, immunity, training, bringing envirments with fewer conflicts for kids, behavioral, rational, language, emotional and social efficacy through positive parenting skills (Sendrez, 2009)
Healing children suffering from oppositional defiant disorder is possible through teaching their parents. During these educational sessions for parents, strategies are taught to make an effective relationship with child (such as speaking, showing love, devoting useful and special time for child), some other strategies for positive behaviours (like descriptive admirations, providing entertaining action) and how to teach new and positive behaviors to children.
The results of studies have shown that such sessions can lead to an increase in mental health of parents and decrease in stress symptoms, depression and physical symptoms: besides, they decrease these disorders and similar ones (Jalali, 1387).
Opposing disobedience is a type of severe pertinacity and disobedience in children that is observed in children in a slighter degree. Children’s disobedience may not be as hard as a harmful disorder but if the parents don’t manage lower and slighter degrees of it, they may face with so hard situation for themselves and their children. So, the parents should not keep waiting for effective actions in this regard from kindergartens, schiils or psychiatrist. What is discussed widely is the slight level of it, thet is the childs disobedience o in a simple word “pretinacty”. The Prevance of pertinacity in kds is much more that defiant disobedience disorder.
6-3) Effective of behavioral disorders in children:
6-3-1-) intelligence and educational progress:
Based on the results from studies (standard test performances), most children suffering from behavioral disorder were left behind at school educationally and are nearly one year behind the expected progress level. They do not try according to their intellectual age and an educationally improved child can rarely be found.
Most of them who suffering from hard and severe disorder, even lack skills like reading and calculation. Among those who can read and calculate, not many of them can apply such skills in solving routine affairs (Javadian, 1388).
6-3-2) features and social incompatibility:
These children are divided into two groups of introverted and extroverted. Extroverting behavioral disorders are identified through aggression, and introverting behaviors through stress and isolation. These children suffer from a seriouse problem in making social and emotional friendship with others at the same age. The introverted group make no relatios with others and the extroverted group disrepute, punish and … their friends because of anger, aggression and rage, and they lack the ability to make a socially healthy relationship (the same reference).
Besides, some of these children do not hold the necessary skills to control and limit their behaviors and this disability in controlling behavior in adolescence changes into serious conflicts. Some would have problems dealing with social rules and they may likely violate the rules and start to take illegal actions (Eshaghi, 1389). Nobody blames a child who is mentally retarded or cerebrally paralysied, but many people assume thet bad-tempered children are able to control their behaviors and if they want, they can stop it. Supposing that these children are responsible for their own behaviors puts on undesireable affect on their interaction with people around them like family, classmates and even teachers.
6-3-3) Tongue growth:
The children suffering from behavioral disorder or turmoil may have some slight problem of delay and tongue problem. Some of them can rarely talk about a main topic and have some problem in using the tongue in to underatand the language. Some show signs of echo, thet is they repeat whatever they hear and say nothing else. Saying a suitable way so that in the dialogue in using the tongue in a suitabl way so that in the dialogue and situation, they can seem meaningful. Some sevely disorderd children don’t talk in any situation and don’t seem to understand the language. Some show signs of echo, that is they repeat whatever they hear and say nothing else. Saying meaningless words is so common among them and they continuously repeat questions or sentences (Amini, 1387).
6-4) kids of behavioral disorders in children:
A variety of disorders is announced in different sources, here are some of them:
- Autism: It is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in childhood. Despite a wide range of behaviors that are covered by the term Autism, almost 4 signs can be named that are emphasized unchangeably: Social isolation, mental retaration, tongue defects and stereotypic behaviors. These kids secede any type of social contact, a situation that is called Autism in extreme Autism can be classified into 3 secondary levels in respect of social relations:
- Aloof: The child rarely makes a social relation automatically.
- Passive: The child is not starter of a contact but answers another contact.
- Active: The child gets clise to others in an uncommon way.
6-5) What is the reason of childs pertinacity?
The most important reason lies in parents behavior, if they are improved, the kids pertinacity would decrease. Pertinacity is a set of behaviors like hitting the ground, yelling, throwing home stuff, crying louding, an action done by kids to meet their needs. The beginning of pertinacity has no special age but it starts in the 2 year old kids a lot and continues until the kids turn to 3, and Pertinacity increases until the late 3 years old. As a whole, Pertinacity is more prevalent during 2 to 5 years old, since the kids are seeking identity, dependence and self-confidence and they try to tell the parents that everything would be done as I wish. But why the kids get basard? One main reason is lack of attention from parents toward the kid and his/her life can change them into a bastard and pernickety. The most important reason for childrens Pertinacity is continuous and sometimes cruel and unfair revenge from child, by removing it, a high perentage of such behavior would reduce. Not paying attention to positive points of childs personality and behavior is along with the revenge. If observing your own behavior, too; You’ll see that a little kindness from others would reduce your defending position, and you may even do sth that you’re not eagered to do, but you do it in a positive and without forbearance situation . The children are a like , too; that is , if you ask your request rationally , by love and kindness, if your criticisms are by time intrvals and don’t put the child into hard criticism, if you give him/her time and place to change his/her idea , if you emphasize on his/her positive points, you can eliminate pertinacity and defense roots in child and reach a healthy, positive and constructive relation. In deed, when children have a request, or their parents make them to do something against their drsire, their pertinacity will start of course, sometimes, parents much attention to childrens inappropriate behavior, would reinforce their inappropriate behavior, so that the children would seek help from reasoning, struggling, nagging, dispute and frequent requests. Some other times. The reason of childrens pertinacity is that parents do not have any stable behavior . For example, they ask children to act according their requests. If we have a stable behavior with children, they would less show pertinacity . The child should never learn that he/she can reach anything by pertinacity, but should learn to state the requests gently and peacefully. But in case of pertinacity, parents should inhibit pertinacity and reinforce the appropriate behavior in child . parents sever reaction to pertinacity and rebellion would influence on the childrens pertinacity too,. One should be consistent, that is; the husband and wife should be coordinate beforehand about what is allowed and what is not, and thwy should also know if the child violate so much, how should the child be treated, that needs the beforehand coordination, continuity and stability.
Holding a daily plan for kid makes a deacrese the situations in which stress is made and makes the child understand that what your expectations are. Parents should allocate some time for kids favorite items, they should know the kids have their own ideas and can decide for themselves. This issue composes an important part of childs personality formation. Even sometimes, Parents should set a time for an activity by asking their idea. So, it is Parents who indicate disputable and not disputable issues. In some children, the belief and pertinacity continues till adolescence, for instance, when the child gets older and gets in the car, argues with others in case of accident due to a minor issue, while they can only solve the problem just by an apology, but this pertinacity leads to a fight. Childrens temper is influenced by genetic factors, too. Some children are naturally quiet but their parents blame themselves so thst they did’nt train the children correctly. Pertinacity means insistence on ideas and opinions and opposition with ideas of other, the opposition is sometimes intentional and sometimes unintentional. Basically, Pertinacity is a type of undesireable reaction and behavior appearing in different forms, like hurting others, cursing, crying, yelling and screaming, breaking things, hurting their own and others, … , but the families are often involved with this situation with older kids and in middle elementary age. The reason of Pertinacity lasting is behavior of parents. As it was mentioned beforehand, too; positive reinforcing of childs wrong behavior fixes a behavior in child. If parent meet the needs of a child that is asked through yelling and fight, Just for making the child quiet, in fact they have answered childs wrong behavior by on award and they should wait for repeatition of it some other time. So, one of most important reasons for incidence and continuity of pertinacity in kids, is parents reply to such behaviors. The child really tries to find a stance. Another issue, is the actions the child is allowed to take. The child doesn’t want to be a child, but he/she is not mature, intelligent and smart enough as a kid yet . He/she takes different actions to find his/her stance. The first action he/she usually takes is to imitate the parents behavior and do them. Incidence of such behaviors from child looks nice for parents at first and they may admire children for it , and encourage the child, while such behaviors get disturbing after a while and parents would object. Another reason is that newborns don’t know how to express their needs, so they do one of the following ways:
First, they learn to express their needs indirectly. The newborns who cry or those who are extremely shy and nice and unobtrusive, may feel that the only way to meet the needs is to the same behaviors.
Second, they learn to express their requests through behaviors and avtions. Perhaps the children who show bad temper for a minor problem and those who are always aggressive, are trying to seek sth they want (Amini, 1383).
6-6) Ways to reduce Pertinacity:
Indifference to bad behaviors:
If it is supposed to apply just one teachnique to eliminate Pertinacity, indifference can surely be the best. When one observes a behavior which wants to be stopped by kid, one choice exists, that is active indifference . It means catching all your attention away from child who is showing misbehavior . Indifference is the result of certainty of not giving unwilling awarol to childs bad behavior through paying attention. Such a management method especially for kids is so effective for decreasing newborns tweezers at the early ages of pre-elementary school. If you are afraid of paying unwanted attention, its better to leave the location and after the behavior is stopped, to come back. Of course, make sure about the locations security before you leave (sharafi, 1371). To eliminate the annoying behavior are those you don’t like, such as nagging, expressing bad words , punishing, aggression and even sometimes, chewing nails. Such behaviors would amplify due to parents attention. Stop your aye contact with kid through “indifference”, suppose he/she doesn’t talk and you hear nothing. Continue until the annoying behavior stops. If you get angry, leave the place. To leave the place and separating from the situation is a suitable way for parents. The best way is when it is along with peace and relaxation and when attention is not paid; other wise , an opposite result would appear. Remember that the child may amplify the annoying behavior at first, but you should perform the technique by patience and determination.
Choose limination and give the right to choose.
Some parents suppose the children should be under their absolute control and dominance. They imagine if they don’t control the children , the children would dominate them ultimately.
The children need a degree of controlling and power for sure. Positive dominance and controlling over children help them to get more responsible. But how can one apply positive controlling about kids?
The answer is simple. Its enough for parents to limit them instead of forbidding and giving a limitation for kids right through a frame. Limiting makes the parents take control of situation, besides they give some authority to kids , too (Mir et.al, translated by Raeis Dana, 1389). Prey children usually have problem with hearing “no”. If you want to say “no” to your newborn child, suggedt two other choices. The right to choose brings the chance for the kid to keep the dignity (Amini, 1383). Remember that if you say “no” to all of the kids needs and give no choice, you should wait for more bad temper from the kid.
6-7) Factors creating oppositional defiant disorder in kids:
The factors are a lot but two of them are so vital & crucial, holding mail roles; nature of the kid and training method.
- Nature of the kid: some characteristics of incompatible and bastard kids are usually the basis for the incidence of crudity in their behaviors. These kids hold low compatibility and are not able to match with the environment well, For instance, they cant stop an enjoyable action or start an undesireable one. Besides, these kids insist on incompatible behaviors like bad temper, insistence, and sustaibility in their temper and their emotions would change rapidly and their reactions to different events would not be predictable.
- Training method: The second effective factor on incidence of incompatibility in children, would be training and performance methods of parents. Some times, the parents make the negative behaviors in child grow. For instance, for stopping the kids crying in a store, meet his/her need thet is to buy a toy. Of course, sometimes, also, cring and pertinacity is aimed to not let you do sth that he/she doesn’t like, for example , his/her crying makes the parents change the idea of taking him/her to bath, as a result , of this behavior, the negative behavior would became stronger.
6-8) The way to oppose the childs incompatibility:
After making clear the causes and factors influencing on formation of kids behavioral problem and incompatibility, one should take action to eliminate or decrease them as much as possible. On the other hand, one should choose appropriate behavioral methods to grow or stop the kids behaviors.
- Boosing technoques: In this method , one should try to increase the positive, expected and desired behaviors and to decrease the negative, undesired and incompatible ones and to stop ultimately. Perhaps, one can simulate the behavioral interferences to prune the trees in which the extra branches are cut and the aim is to keep and reinforce the main branches and stems.
- Making an intimate relation: the most important point in behavioral interferences is making an appropriate relation with parents, kids and babysiters in order to produce the desired result. At first, Parents should try to make a positive and intinate relation between themselves and kids and the secret is attention. The children need attention and most of their behaviors are to seek attention . Parents could look at child in different times during the day and describe his/her behavior like a sport reporter, like , “I see you are painting ” or “youre planning with your toys” , … such attention tells the child that you are paid attention by parents and they care about your behaviors. Observing this issue helps the relation between parent and child get better.
- Attention to positive behaviors: Next step is special attention to kids positive behavior. For example, whenever the child shows a nice and positive behavior, encourage him/her orally and irnmediately through calling him/her name and rhe activity. So , the child would understand which activity is confimed by parents. For instance, it can be said: “well done Dear Ali, since you always say hi when you enter home”, or “well done dear Saina, because you helped me with my work today”.
- Assuming an award: Physical awards and activities like embracing, patting the childs back , doing a مشترک activity like a game, reading stories , walking and giving مادی award (buying a present) are other ways that should be done intime and in a suitable place to encourage the children. Of course, the most important point in amplifying positive behavior based on attention to them and assuming an award, is not to use unclear phrases that don’t provide enough information about kids activity confination. For example, it is not okay to say: ” well done dear Ali, because you are a good boy”. This phrase doesn’t point to kids proper behavior.
- Eliminating methods: The next step to oppose the incompatibility in children is to eliminate the negative behaviors. Childrens negative behavior can be classified into 2 groups” not dangerous, non-destructive and not-important “and” dangerous, destructive and important”. In not dangerous behavior, it can be referred to arguing, yelling, crying to gain attention and persistence on metting the needs and in dangerous behavior, one can refer to aggression, taking dangerous and damaging actions and disobedience. The most appropriate reaction to oppose not dangerous behaviors is to ignore the childs behavior completely , so if nothing has happened and as soon as the behavior is done, the usual attention should be paid again. But in case of the second group, reacting method is different. First , you should prevent the child genthy, without any anger, hurry and aggression from continuance of it. Then you should explain to him/her that such behavior would be followed by a consequence, it is needed for the behavior to be so that the kid be deprived or at least limited for a while to do favorite things. Huffing for sutable and determined duration, reducing the time of game or watching TV, making him/her to sit chair for a specific time are the other consequence and the child should not be forgiven, at all, so that, his/her negative behavior will fade gradually.
6-9) oppositional defiant disorder process in kids:
This one is a gradual and chronic disorder (Blum Quest, 1383) and also, evidence exists from descent consistency in anti-social and aggressive behavior pattern. In fact, perhaps, the most troublesome feature of conduct disorder (not random action of healthy child ) is its stability during the time (Lahi et.al, 1995). The evidence of early conduct disorders that are raising them (Robins, 1978). As Aron and Hayesman (1990) believe, it was cleared that untreated aggression remains through a period of 30 years. But as morgan and Rotter (1998) point out, when the details of study is examined, continuity and lack of continuity are observed through time. For example, hyperactivity, aggression, weak verbal skills, slow improvement at school, problems with the same age children and rebellion of family are dangerous factors for the start of this disorder in boys (Peterson, 1995).
Child confict disobedience disorder is strongly followed by further disorder of conduct in childhood. Although about 20 to 25 % of kids suffer from it in 3 years, over 52 % of them still suffer after this time range. Almost half of the kids who remain suffering (25% of all kids suffering from the first ), move toward conduct disorder after 3 years, more than 80 % suffer from oppositional defiant disorder in advance. Therefore, incidence of both disorders is more prevalent in boys, but as a result of definition and age performance, the relations change widely. Besides, one study indicates that perhaps girls reach the level of boys in conduct disorder during adolescence. (Zakalilou, 1993).
But the starting of disorder during adolescence holds some differences; gender diffrences are less clear, aggression and learning problems are not important, and committing crime in this period is sometimes related with popularity by the children at the same age and orientation of close friends and their crime. The age of disorder appearance is an index of continuity in Isaiah’s behavior problems. The main factors affecting anti-social behavior in youth till adulthood are: prents’ anti social behavior , alcoholism, inadequate observation of parents on child , aggressive or unequal disciplinary approaches, marital differences in family, big family, siblings who are anti-social , … .
The most important factor predicting the long – term consequence is childs anti-social behavior features and includes early starting of the behaviors, anti-social behavior in different situations (like home and school), anti-social behaviors that are in contrast with each other (Luber, 2008). In some cases, pertinacity disobedience disorder turns into conduct disorder. In fact, all the kids suffering from conduct disorder had a background of this disorder, too. However, all the kids by pertinacity-disobedience disorder don’t move to more serious disordering behavioras along with conduct disorder. Evolution and profnosis in children with conflict indifference disorder depend on many variants like transmission severing, stability through time, probability of another disorder at the same time (dual indentificacation like conduct disorder, learning, temper, and drug abuse disorders) and family’s health (child and youth psychiatry Academy in the U.S.A, 2007). It is found in a study that there is a meaningful relation between disobedience and conduct disorders. In addition, John Lani et.al (1997) indicated that there’s no meaningful relation between childs conduct disorder and fathers one. Therefore, Regarding linar process of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder , it can be concluded from different views and sources that kid’s hard temper in neonatal period, conflict disobedience and conduct disorder are in a linear process. A child showing hard temper at the birth time and has some signs of parents negativism, may be grown up disobedient and revengeful further in growth, and it may change into conduct disorder. Of couse, in the meantime, the kids growing up environment, especially family should not be ignored, since if familys environment is healthy and nugatory, it can eliminate kids negative behavior. Besides, if the culyure in which individual is grown up is healthy and doesn’t reinforce kids negativism, it can prevent from reinforcement and even incidence of liner evolution in disorders.
6-10) The effective behavioral therapy tecniques on oppositional defiant disorder.
6-10-1) solidarity agreement:
One of the behavioral therapy tecniques to treat children’s behavioral disorder, is to use solidarity agreement. This agreement means setting daily behavioral agreement to clarify behavioral expectations and its dependents (like awards and punishments) for kids behavior. In this method, the child receves an award for each positive behavior and for negative one, the child would receive a mild punishment (Koeest, 1389).
Creating a dependence agreement is usually done through two sessions involving parents and child (deremy et.al, 2006).
The process includes 3 steps:
The first step= clarifying behavioral expectation: the first step is to define the behavior clearly that is the aim of agreement. The aiming behavior should be determined by visual operating terms that theres no need to understand them. That is, in this step, parents should specify their expectations from child clearly and apparently (Berger, 1390). Aiming behaviors may contain undesired behaviors that should be eliminated or those desired one that should be reinforced. So that , parents (may be with therapist) clarify the behaviors that should be changed. In this phase, it is important that behavioral expectations should be clear and explicit, it should be olear for the kid that what is he/she expected to do in order to receive an award and is he/she should understand them for sure. For example, if the parents say “you should listen whatever I say”, this sentence is so general and obscure. So , it should be said:”I want you to do your homework just by one request”. This sentence is more clear than the previous one. And another important point is that the expectations from child should not be much higher than the ability. It should not be forgotten that the aim of behavior therapy is to form the desired behavior, so the child should not be expected beyond his/her ability.
The second step= clarifying that how aimed behaviors are measured. The therapist or parents should have a visual evidence of target behavior incidence. In other words, they should be able to prove the incidence of the target behavior or the opposite. So that, the obligations are applicable correctly (Berger, 1390). Therefore, at the time the agreement is written, the child and parents (or therapist) should be able to prove the incidence or non-incidence of the target behaviors, so that obligations are applicable properly.
The third step= clarifying the time when the behavior should be performance: each agreement should contain a time frame to be performed when the behavior should happen (or not) to perform the obligations (the same reference, 1390).
The fourth step= specifying attainable and disposable points suitable with kids behavior (amplifiers). This step includes making a menu of awards. The child is asked which award he/she wishes and what he/she expects the parents. The scores the child can attain here or may lose should be specified. The children are often suspicious toward dependence agreements and assume it as an obligatory technique or strategy from parents to oblige kids for dominance from parents. So, its better to make a feeling in kid that it’s a mutual agreement done by both parents and child together, through joining him/her in writing the agreement. Therefore, the child would cooperate more.
The fifth step= Applying the agreement= This phase includes a passage related to awards and behaviors . In this phase, behavioral expectations and those scores that will be attained or lost should be specified. Calculating rates should be clarified through the level of target performance in which the child has the ability to do it and the rate of positive behavior that is expected to do done. The main idea is that small actions to have small scores and big actions to have big scores (Kalantari, 1390)
The calculating rates are determined according to the level the aim is done in an acceptable way by chil and the level of positive behavior needed to reach before award (Jeremy et.al, 2006).
The child economy can be used in this phase. Here, the chips can be small and different stuff like bead, button , star, … (Omidvar, 1385). Meaing that for smaller desired behaviors, less numbers of chips and for bigger ones, more chips should be assumed. Now, an agreement can be written for chips. For example, kid can watch his/her favorite TV promram if he/she earned 3 chips and he/she can go to cinema by 6 ones.
The following points should be observed while using chips:
- The chips should be selected so that the child can see, touch and cout them.
- The child should be able to collect the chips and save them.
- The child chips be aware that he/she can change the chips with other touchable and favorite amplifiers.
- It’s not possible to earn the chips in any way other than the behavior mentioned in agreement for kid (Omidvar, 1385).
some chips chips allow the child to buy a daily award that most of children gain independently, and to keep a pair of chips that remains extra each day, to be able to buy a bigger award. If the child is’nt able to do it, the exchange rate for positive behavior and then awards should be more generously. If the kid can gain a bigger award after just one week of good behavior, it means that exchange rates are so generously made. And they should be balanced so that the child be moved to improve the behavior. To succed in this approach, there should be continuity. If the parents do this plan one daye or once or don’t give award after the desired behavior was observed, the agreement would certainly become inefficient. Another point about dependence agreement is that most parents think that if they pay an award to the child due to a correct behavior, they have tampered, but the fact is that in this approach, the parents provide a chance for children in which the kids can gain more scores for right and social behavior. For instance, if the manager of a company promotes an employee for an action, is it regarded as tampering? (Robins, 1390).
6-10-2) Temporary-stopping-of-game technique:
Temporary stopping is a technique in which the parents and teacher use it reacting to undesireable actions of children. It includes drawing off the kid from environments and activities, when somethimg inappropriate or undesired happens and to put the child in a specific place for a specific time to be quiet and think about his/her behavior. The temporary stopping of game is a desiplinary technique in which physical punishment is not applied. The experts report that prevention from physical punishment may prevent children from learning this point:” anger or obliging physical pain is appropriate to reach the desired results”. Therefore, the kids learn to draw off the “stopping the game temporarily” position through stopping behaviors resting in a stop in game or such alarms.
- A place should be specified at home appropriate for this aim. A chair or a pathway or a corner of house would be okay. This place should not be so closed, dark or scary. In addition, it should be so that the child cant entertain the self. For example, not to be in front of TV or computer or in an amusement area. The existing stuff in the place should be boring but not scary.
- Provide a timer by loud sound, to specify the passed time in stopping the game. This time is suggested based on the age, between 1 to 5 minutes.
- When the child shows a bad behavior, explain explicitly and visually his/her unacceptable behavior and say him/her to stop it. Alarm thet if it is not stopped, he/she must be seated on a chair to stop the game temporary. If kid stopped, He/she deserues an encouragement.
- The time is started from the moment the kid sits on chair. If he/she made noise or misbehaved, the time is counted from beginning. If kid left the chair, guide him/her to the chair, set the timer again. The kid should be silent and show good behavior till the end of punishment (Gitipasand, 1386). If it was’nt effective, the parents can take one of his/her future scores, for example, if he/she did’nt sit on chair, he/she should go to bed 30 minutes earlier (Bahramian, 1392).
- After the timer alarmed, the child may stand up energetically and start the activities again. The kids passed the stopping time , so there’s no need to continue the dispute about the undesired behavior (Gitipasand, 1386).
Koeest announces this phase in the book , different from Gitipasand, it is mentioned:”After the temporary stopping, the child should be asked to obey when hearing a request. If still disobedient or resistant, above steps are repeated.
Teaching Relaxation to kid:
Relaxation teaching is a physiological- physiological interference including brain and body’s performance and in fact, it emphasize on mind’s relaxing resulted from body that is relaxed. When the kis understands his/her anger, he/she can learn the skills to oppose.
Learning to to reduce muscle tension during muscle relaxation is the first. Phase. It is done through some ways. This relaxation is done by some approaches, each approach depending an age and skill levels. The following points are those approaches that can be used to teach children how to relax the muscles.
The environmental conditions in relaxation is so important.
- Deep break: the child should be tought how to breathe deep through teaching and patterns. The major method is to inhale and exhale deep and slowly.
- Visualization (illustration)= the child is asked to visualize a really relaxing picture in minde. For example, he/she could imagine floating on a wooden board in a lake. The kid continues visualizing, goes up and down by waves , it is sunset and views alike.
- Old robot and doll technique : It’s a relaxing technique through contracting and releasing the muscles, that is useful for young kids (10 years old or younger). Firs , the kid is asked to tighten muscles and imagine him/her self as a robot and continue it for 15 minutes, then he/she should release all the tensions and imagine as he/she is an old doll with all the loose muscles, and keep it for 15 minutes. He/she is asked to continue this technique until his/her muscles are relaxed.
- Relaxation through contracting and releasing the organized muscles:
This technique is suitable for older kids and adolescents (11 years old and older). In this method, the individual contracts the muscles in an order and hen releases them. For example, the child contracts his/her legs for 5-10 seconds then releases them for 5-10 seconds. It can be done by hands, arms legs, stomach, shoulders, neck, face and hips. When kid did it, he/she can learn to do it for all of muscles at the same time and so slowly. One or two of these techniques should be practiced with child for teaching him/her muscle relaxation.
6-11) child disobedience opposing factor at the elementaro level:
Understand them, when the children are asked to come to lunch and they shout “not now”, and if you asked again to come anyway and he/she got angry, put yourself in their shoes. If he/she is skating with friends , say you know it’s hard to stop the game but lunch is ready. It is for showing him/her that despite you are a part of problem, but you are at his/her party, try not to get angry (even if the neighbors are involved & watching the show of you and your elemantry school child). Keep kind and od course if necessary insistant.
Define a limitation. Elementary school children are in need of limitations, so assign some limitations and make sure that your child knows them. Mention the limits, “you are not allowed to use the phone without permission”, or “I told you once you should come”. If you child (like any other child) has problems in obeying the rules, work on solutions. Talk about the situation and try to find a way to the depth of your child’s disobedience. May be that’s why he/she prevents from doing homework and he/she has problem in mathematics. In such a situation, a mathematical computer game or some reinforcement sessions with older siblings would be effective. Or he/she does’nt accept your request for lunch or any other request, he/she is in short of time for going outdoors. If the kid knows that you are also seeking a solution to the problem, he/she would decrease the disobedience. Improve good temper and behavior. Although oral punishment is tempting at the time of child’s disobedience, it is recommended to watch your mouth. According to jane Nelson, the author of the book series “positive Discipline”, when the kid commits something wrong , he/she feels so bed immediately. Who says that to improve the kids behavior, first you should do something for him/her to feel worse toward self?” In fact, it would lead to something more negative. Instead, try to encourage your child while observing a good action. Remember that to train kids doesn’t mean to control him/her. Instead , learn to control yourself. Punishment may force them to act right but it is only by fear. It’s better for them to do it by his/her desire, since it makes his/her day more desireable, and he/she makes a good feeling. Despite, teach them there would be consequences in case of violation. Instead of punishment, be rational and honest: “If you play soccer at home, I have to put it in garage and not to give it to you anymore”. Apply the positive excuses. When you elementary school child is close to get angry due to something against his/her wish, help him/her to keep calm. Instead of punishment command “go to your room”, encourage him/her to sit alone in a favorite corner in his/her bedroom or on a sofa in living room to relax . perhaps, even your child wants to find “somewhere to relax” by a big pillow, soft blanket and some favorite books. If he/she disobeyed, suggest to read a book together, or take a walk together. If still disagreed, you go alone, just to relax. It’s not only a good example for him/her, but also it would be a valuable break time for you too. While both of you got relaxed, its time to talk about an appropriate behavior. Give him/her authority. Try to provide him/her a chance to glorify his/her dependence. Let him/her choose his/her clothes (of course until they are clean and without a hole). To Nelson, “such a cooperation does’nt mean your child is Jack of all trades”. But it just indicates that you should care about his/her needs. Another way to help your child feel more power and authority is to say what is allowed instead of saying what is not . instead of saying “no, doesn’t play with that ball at home”, say: “ go play in the yard”. Your child is old enough to understand the issues, then explain to him/her why it’s wrong to play baseball at home. Select the topic to argue. If kid wants to eat cake for lunch and likes butter and jelly for brealfast, what’s wrong with it? Sometimes, it is easier to view the problems from another side-for instance, when she/he does’nt comb hair or does’nt organize the clean clothes in the closet but under the bed, keep peace. When she/he may be stimulated to disobey in a situation, prevent from that situation. If it has been a while that one of the friends make him/her angry, invite another playmate over for a while . if she/he hates when someone touches his/her collection, hide it in a closet when there is a guest. Any way, if you found yourself in a tough condition suddenly, you can choose the middle limit. It is not efficient for 100% but it is worth trying. Respect his/her age and abilities. When you ask the kid to make the bed or clean up the table; first , make sure that she/he knows how to do it. Spend some time to teach your kid new things to do , and do them together until he/she is completely learned. Sometimes what is presumed as disobedience is only a disability in doing a tough responsibility held upon a chil. Ultimately, respect the extraordinary word where your kid lives in. instead of expecting his/her help to cook after winning the game , give him/her some time to come out of victory’s happiness mood. (my son , were going to have lunch in 5 minutes, then please finish your game and set the table). She/he would’nt probabely like to quit the game , and to work with spoon and fork, in fact, may be , he/she nags all the time. But until the time you are patient and stable, your kid would finally learn that disobedience is not a true way to reach what he/she wants ( khaleghi, 1393). Analysis and results from statistal finding: descriptive statistics=
The gathered data and information are the raw sources that should be analyzed and examined by appropriate tools in order to move the applicable informative result. In a similar study, the most suitable tool to analyze the attained data and information, is statistical test. Through doing this test , the relation of different variants is found and eventually, the answer for intended questions would be resulted. In fact, data statistical analysis, contains two main targets as a part of scientific methodology:
- Description of experiential evidence that is collected through observation, or test, … about under study subject.
- Interpretation of descriptive results to assess the study’s questions.
This chapter contains explanation of descriptive results , data analysis, study and proving the data descriptively- inferentially. In descriptive phase , using the frequency index, percentage, percentage of cumulative frequency, mean, and standard devition and graph, under-study variants can be classified and described and using pearson correlation test and multivariate regression, the hypothesis would be tested.
Data descriptive analysis:
Table 1) mean standard deriation of the highest and lowest marks, symptoms of pertinacity disobedience disorder, test group and control group testings in pre-test and post – test phases:
|groups||phases||mean||Standard deviation||The lowest||The highest|
Az it is observed in table 2, mean and standard deviation of symptoms in pre-test phase for the testing group were 5/83, and 1/83, and for control qroup 7 and 1/26 respectively, they were 3/33 and 2/42 for testing group and 6/33 and 1/03 for control group, respectively in post-test phase. In other words, the mean of marks in testing group in post-test phase as 3/33 shows a decrease related to pretest phase as 5/83 ; however, not a big difference is observed in control group.
Table 2: results from covariance analysis on the mean of post-test marks;
The symptoms of pertinacity disobedience disorder, variants of testing and control and control groups:
|Total of squares||Freedom level||Mean of squares|| |
|Meaningfulness level of p|
|symptoms of pertinacity disobedience disorder||group||5/333||1||5/333||0/889||Less than 0/01|
As it is observed in table 2, there is a meaningful difference between variants of testing and control groups of this disorder up to the level 0/01, regarding the symptoms. That is behavioral therapy made a decrease in the symptoms of this disorder in the whole students in all of schools in the second grade, so it is effective in decreasing the symptoms.
Discussion and conclusion:
Oppositional defiant disorder and prevalence of such disorders among students is a problem that has affected the families, schools and society. Childhood is the most important phase in life, in which the individual’s personality is formed. Most behavioral incompatibilities and disorders in the youth and adulthood, rise from lack of attention toward behavioral and emotional problems in childhood and lack of correct direction during the process of growth and evolution. Childhood oppositional defiant disorders is an inevitable phase in growth.
The most explicit behaviors of opposing types come to the highest point at the age of 3. It will be pathological when it becomes abnormal regarding continuity or severity, and the frequency gets more significant, and in a clearer word, it is not similar to age and growth situation of kid. When these situations are frequently repeated and move severe, they turn into a type oof opposing disobedience disorder. It is one of the common reasons of child’s referring to consulting and psychology clinics. To identify children who suffer from this disorder acutely, several single assessments should be done and the parents and teacher should be interviewed. This disorder is a gradual and chronic disorder, almost always interfering in interpersonal and educational performances of kids. In this chapter, after analyzing the hypothesis and the results , the only hypothesis is to be discussed, and then some suggestions are made accordingly, and the limitations through study are mentioned. This disorder is a common childhood type, if not eliminated during childhood , it can cause irreparable problems for kid and the family. Thus, interferce in this disorder is a necessary and vital factor. The disorder of opposing disobedience type of behavior in which the child shows disobedience, aggression or incompatibility toward authority. This disorder is a continuous and behavioral pattern of disobedience, aggression, and challenging (stimulating) parents, teachers and others in authority that are beyond a normal behavior in psychology of children growth. The children who suffer, may look so bastard and aggressive. In this study, the effort was to study one of the effective methods in the reduction of disobedience symptoms in the children with some signs of it. Having a bastard and disobedient child is a subject that most families have experienced it; however, the parents would grow it up through inppropriate reactions toward children reactions toward children due to lack of suitable knowledge. But both parents and children would hurt as a result of such actions and reactions. Using the mentioned methods is helpful to some extend in controlling the child’s pertinacity and also prevention from its include various behaviors in different conditions. The parents shouldn’t expect, surely, to remove all of them at once and in a short while . it is necessary for parents to make a list of the kids behavioral problems and to choose the most important one- preferably by talking to a child psychologist in the next step and take action to solve them one-by-one more important , it is to be patient during the process of our child’s behavioral change and progress, and not to expect big changes through a short period of time.
Study of the results of the study based on analysis of the projects statistical finding:
The results showed that the amount of symptoms in each phase of post-test is declined meaningfully (p<=0/001) and there is a meaningful relation between effectiveness of Barclay training on oppositional defiant disorder symptom decrease.
The most important point taken from hypothesis confirmation is efficacy and effectiveness of training method on decrease in this disorder symptoms. Confirmation of this finding in the native and foreign surveys and this one is indicator of a so important principle of repeatability scientific experience and a confirmation of previous paper’s accuracy. The results of control group is also indicator of stability and reliability of disobedience symptoms, in other words, pass of time cause stability of this disorder. The findings of this study are consistent with the findings from Barclay (1997), Barry (2001), Watson (2003) and Ken (2004) . as the disorder will increase the number of children ratio who are in need of mental health and the service providers and similar budget ratio, children clinical psychologists and the researchers should focus on prevention plans more than before.
Early prevention plans show that the effect of these plans on prevention of children’s problem depend highly on parent’s participation in the process of interference, since the children are really influenced by parents and direct interference also would usually be impossible regarding the kids; thus, one way to reach the kids is parents (Schroeder and Gordon , 2005, translated by Firouzbakht, quoted by sarami, 1386). Because prevention from incidence and progress of chil’s problem, not only is a service to child and the parents, but also it would be prevention from problems of the next generation, too. In cases that the kids show behavioral problems symptoms, family or mothers trearment is the best way to prevent from progress or to treat the problems, since the child’s behavioral disorder is often made and developed due to inappropriate behavior of parents (sarami, 2007) (scholastic research, 1999) , Barry (2001), , (Dragli and Larson, 2006) , (scott, 2006) have confirmed that the way parents behave, especially mother, and her parenting method is effective in incidence of behavioral disorsers in children.
Suggestions based on paper’s finding:
- It is suggested that the subject of prevalence and prevention from behavioral disorders and also prevention from their recurrence among students of both gender (girl and boy) in the second grade of elementary school in this town and other town can be focused more to be able to take more suitable actions in terenferences and make good decisions in this regar.
- Applying this type of interference in parents-training plans is also suggested in future studies in order to change parenting methods and imorove the relations.
- It’s another suggestion to assume the examination of this disorder in kids health ID at the moment of entering the school , through notices and teaching parents, in order to be able to prevent from the dangerous side effects in adulthood like isolation, lack of self-confidence and defiant disobedience disorder by means of identification and appropriate interferce.
- It is suggested to change the mothers who are attending in training sessions to change mothers incorrect knowledge toward themselves and their kids, and to reduce the sin and depression feeling that is caused by feeling faulty and also the feeling of anger because they think the fault are from kids, then their mental health can be influenced.
- It is suggested that kids behavioral treatment is done like a therapy. Such approach reduces individuals conflict to environment by paying attention to environmental events. The positive progress of normal behaviors by teachers and parents along with indifference and temper and aggression of child and cognitive- behavioral arrangements would form an effective therapeutic set.
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